Utilities or third-party companies gather energy storage systems owned by residents, commercial users, and industrial users and connected to the smart grid through a central control room, and participate in grid services to obtain application benefits by analyzing, controlling, and optimizing the operation of energy storage systems . The “virtual power plant” model is the product of energy storage pursuing multiple application values. A distributed energy storage system that undergoes unified scheduling and management can not only participate in the power market to obtain benefits through frequency modulation, reserve capacity and other applications, but also can play a role in voltage support for power transmission and distribution systems, delay power transmission and distribution expansion upgrades, and demand response applications. value. According to GTM Research’s forecast, the annual revenue of global virtual power plants will increase from US$1.5 billion in 2016 to US$5.3 billion in 2023, and the United States will account for US$3.7 billion in 2023. At present, in the international market, Moixa of the United Kingdom, Stem of the United States, and Sonnen of Germany are all using this model to develop revenue channels for energy storage projects for users. Layout of virtual power plant business.
In the virtual power plant mode, the software (some called “cloud platform” or “central control room”) that can aggregate energy storage systems for analysis and optimize control is very critical. The software needs to obtain data from building loads in a certain period of time (Stem’s AI software Athena reads every second), obtain price information from the market, and collect hour-level weather information at the same time. For the information of each building, each market, and each electricity fee, the software needs to manage in real time. When a utility calls for demand response, the software can find optimization points that help users save more money.