Summary of Photovoltaic Power Station Operation and Management Experience

Summary of Photovoltaic Power Station Operation and Management Experience

After the photovoltaic power station is completed, in order to ensure that the photovoltaic power station can be smoothly connected to the grid for power generation, a large amount of business work is required. These tasks are very necessary and lay the foundation for ensuring the safety and reliability of the photovoltaic power station for grid-connected power generation, relevant statistics, reporting, and settlement. There are mainly the following business tasks to be completed:

1. The photovoltaic power station has the business conditions for operation

1.1. Photovoltaic power stations connected to the grid for power generation shall obtain a power generation business license;

1.2. Photovoltaic power generation enterprises should sign and complete the “Purchase and Sale Contract” with the power company;

1.3. The gateway meter used by the grid-connected point of the photovoltaic power station has completed the installation procedures at the customer service center of the power company;

1.4. The photovoltaic power generation enterprise has signed and completed the “Grid-connected Dispatching Agreement” with the dispatching center;

1.5. The equipment and structures of the photovoltaic power station have been installed and constructed and passed the completion acceptance;

1.6. The photovoltaic power station has passed the safety evaluation of the professionals of the Electricity Regulatory Bureau;

1.7. The photovoltaic power station has passed the safety inspection of relevant quality supervision, environmental protection, lightning protection and other departments;

Photovoltaic Power Station

2. Photovoltaic power plants have the personnel conditions for grid connection

At present, according to the actual situation of most newly built photovoltaic power plants in my country, it is essential to set up permanent personnel on duty at the power plant. However, the quality of technical personnel is also very high. The details are as follows:

2.1. The operating personnel have undergone professional training and have a high-voltage electrician network operation license;

2.2. The dispatching duty personnel have been trained and obtained the dispatching system operation duty certificate issued by the control center;

2.3. The leaders of the company, the persons in charge of the production, technology and safety departments and the safety management personnel have participated in the training and examination of the safety organization, and have good safety management experience and relevant knowledge;

2.4. Photovoltaic power station personnel should be trained by professional and technical personnel from manufacturers of indoor and outdoor high-voltage switches, transformers, inverters, DC cabinets, combiner boxes, reactive power compensation devices, background monitoring, etc., to understand and master the working principles of each unit’s equipment, each Component names, functions, methods of maintenance, operation, fault judgment, defect handling, etc.;

2.5. The personnel of the photovoltaic power station should study the “Electrical Industry Safety Code” carefully, and master the safety knowledge and emergency rescue knowledge in the electric power industry;

2.6. Photovoltaic power station personnel should be familiar with the wiring method of the primary and secondary systems of the power station under their jurisdiction, and the voltage level of each component, so as to ensure that the “two tickets” execution process is correct and the work is in place;

2.7. Photovoltaic power station personnel should master the correct use of meters, safety tools, appliances, test instruments, etc. New on-duty personnel engaged in power station operation and maintenance must undergo relevant training.

3. The photovoltaic power station has the equipment conditions for operation

There are many photovoltaic power station equipments. To ensure that the equipment is installed in good condition, the test is qualified, and the premise of safe and reliable grid-connected power generation is to carry out a series of work on the equipment before and during the grid-connected commissioning of the equipment, the main points are as follows:

3.1. The relevant electrical equipment of the photovoltaic power station has a complete factory qualification certificate, and the main primary and secondary equipment, lightning protection equipment and grounding system, transformer oil samples, etc. have been installed and qualified by the experimenters to meet the operating conditions;

3.2. The electricity meter, CT, and PT at the grid-connected point of the photovoltaic power station should be checked by the power supply company before they can be used;

3.3. The remote signaling and telemetry information of the related equipment of the photovoltaic power station has been transmitted to the background of the centralized control room and has been transmitted to the dispatching master station system according to the dispatching requirements;

3.4. The relevant three-phase AC primary cables of the photovoltaic power station have been checked and confirmed to be correct;

3.5. The components connected to the combiner box, DC cabinet, and inverter have no positive and negative polarity reversed, grounded, open circuit, overload, etc.;

3.6. The fire protection and security facilities related to the photovoltaic power station should be intact, sufficient and available;

3.7. The relevant relay protection settings of photovoltaic power plants are calculated correctly, coordinated reasonably, have been correctly input into the equipment, and have protection functions after testing by the test personnel, and the relevant setting values have been sent to the dispatching office for record;

3.8. The manager of the photovoltaic power station should prepare some necessary safety tools and spare parts for the equipment.

4. Establish a complete technical document and information management system

For each power station, a comprehensive and complete technical file should be established, and a special person should be appointed to manage the technical documents of the power station, so as to provide strong technical basic data support for the safe and reliable operation of the power station.

4.1 Establish technical files of power station equipment and design and construction drawing files

This is the basic technical archives of the power station, mainly including: design and construction, as-built drawings; acceptance documents; basic working principles, technical parameters, equipment installation procedures, and equipment debugging steps of each equipment; all operating switches, knobs, handles, and status and Description of signal indication; relay protection setting list; operation steps of equipment; items and contents of power station maintenance; maintenance schedule and operating procedures of all maintenance items; power station troubleshooting guide, including detailed inspection and repair steps, etc.

4.2 Establishment of power station operation period files

  • Power station operation log and monitor work log

The operation log is one of the most important records for the team during the management of the equipment. The operation status, operation status, alarm information, maintenance status and other contents of the equipment are recorded in the operation log, which is convenient for personnel to understand and check the operation status of the equipment in time, and is convenient for summarizing and sorting out Some conditions of the equipment during the operation period play a very important role in equipment management such as technical transformation of the power station and equipment reliability analysis. The squad leader’s log is also very useful. It can record the team’s work arrangement when managing personnel and equipment, the division of labor of personnel, the safety of personal equipment, personnel attendance and other daily work of the team. It is a powerful supplement to the equipment operation log. The smooth development of team work plays a huge role.

  •  Defect Registration Records of Power Stations

When a fault occurs in the power station, the operator of the power station must record the fault phenomenon in detail and cooperate with the maintenance personnel to carry out maintenance work. After the fault is eliminated, the “Defect Registration Book” must be filled out carefully. , Opinions on defect elimination, pre-control of dangerous points of defect elimination and accident prediction, person to eliminate defect, time to eliminate defect, inspector, etc. Shaanxi Photovoltaic Solar Power Co., Ltd. took the lead in incorporating the pre-control of dangerous points and accident prediction into defect records, which is an innovation different from general defect records. The advantage of this method is that it is very convenient to pre-control dangerous points and predict accidents If it is implemented, it will allow the on-site personnel to carry out the accident prediction work as a normal work.

  • Power station inspection records

Power station inspection work is also one of the key tasks of photovoltaic power station management, including background monitoring inspection and on-site inspection. This work should be carried out regularly by professional technicians. During the inspection process, it is necessary to comprehensively check the operation of each equipment in the power station and record relevant parameters. Although there are many types of photovoltaic power station equipment, there are not many types of equipment. General operating personnel are basically competent for basic inspection tasks after professional training. However, if the technical level and sense of responsibility of the personnel are different, the quality of inspections will be inconsistent. In inspection management, managers must first lead by example, go to the scene more, watch the background monitoring more, check the inspection record account more, participate in pre-shift and after-shift meetings, and conduct technical communication with equipment manufacturers to keep abreast of personnel and equipment. Through training, education, incentives and other methods to improve personnel’s sense of responsibility and work enthusiasm, the quality of inspection work has been greatly improved. In order to improve efficiency and save costs, photovoltaic power plants with large scale and many equipment rooms can also introduce technical defense equipment such as inspection instruments, video monitoring, smoke detectors, and fire alarms, so as to more effectively improve the quality of inspections.

4.3 Establish a regular work system

Power station report submission, regular testing of safety equipment, equipment inspection, maintenance, maintenance, testing, personnel safety education and training, and many other tasks need to be completed on a regular basis. In order to avoid omissions and complete this series of work, the management personnel of photovoltaic power plants are required to sort out the daily work of the power plant, formulate a set of detailed and feasible regular work sheets and systems, cooperate with the production of some regular work record books, and arrange special personnel to regularly implement and Complete various regular work, arrange special personnel to regularly inspect and assess the quality of regular work and continuously summarize various work.

Photovoltaic Power Station

5. Safety tools and tools that photovoltaic power plants should have

The use of qualified and complete safety tools and labor protection products can greatly improve the safety and work efficiency of personnel in the process of equipment maintenance, testing and other work. The placement of necessary environmental condition collection equipment is very useful for the relative comparison and analysis of the power station, and the data statistics are of great use. The main points are as follows:

5.1. Tools for daily inspection, such as: multimeter, clamp ammeter, megohmmeter, electroscope, spot temperature meter, etc.;

5.2. Tools for daily operation, such as: operating rocker, ground knife operating rod, energy storage rocker, etc.;

5.3. Safety appliances, such as discharge rods, safety helmets, insulating gloves, grounding wires, safety fences, insulating sleeves, insulating baffles, signs, blowtorches, fire extinguishers, fire axes, etc.;

5.4. Testing and testing instruments, primary test bench, secondary test bench, power quality detector, cable fault detector, etc.;

5.5. The environmental condition acquisition system can detect the illuminance, wind speed, ambient temperature and other equipment in real time, such as optical power predictor, environmental detector and other equipment.

6. Continuously optimize equipment maintenance and management

Organize personnel discussions, continuously optimize maintenance management, formulate detailed inspection and maintenance scope instructions, ensure the quality and efficiency of inspection and maintenance, and ensure that there will be no missing items during inspection and maintenance. The level of maintenance work should be continuously improved.

6.1 Photovoltaic array

The design life of the photovoltaic array can reach more than 25 years, and its failure rate is low. Of course, due to environmental factors or lightning strikes, components may be damaged. Its maintenance work mainly includes:

Ensure the cleanliness of the photovoltaic array lighting surface. In areas with little rain and strong wind and sand, it should be cleaned once a month. When cleaning, it should be rinsed with clean water that is not easy to scale, and then wiped dry with a clean soft cloth. Do not rinse with corrosive solvents, or use Wipe with hard objects; In terms of cleaning the battery board, I tried to clean the battery board by natural wind last year. The main process is to hang flocs on the appropriate position on the battery board at night, and use the strong wind at night to make the flocs Friction with the battery board, thus playing the role of cleaning the battery board.

Regularly check whether the connection between the photovoltaic module boards is firm, whether the wiring in the junction box of the square array is firm, and fasten as required; check whether the photovoltaic module is damaged or abnormal. When there is a problem with the photovoltaic module, replace it in time and record in detail the specific installation and distribution position of the module in the photovoltaic array.

Check whether the connection between the brackets of the square array is firm, whether the connection between the brackets and the grounding system is reliable, whether the connection between the metal sheath of the cable and the grounding system is reliable, and connect reliably as required; check whether the lightning protection in the combiner box of the square array is intact, press Replacement is required.

6.2 Inverter and step-up transformer

The inverter and the corresponding step-up transformer are the core electrical equipment of the grid-connected photovoltaic power station. The normal and high-quality operation of this set of equipment is closely related to the guaranteed power generation of the power station; the low consumption and high-efficiency operation of this set of equipment is a strong driving force for the power generation increase of the power station. Regularly check whether the DC input and AC output cable connectors of the inverter are hot due to virtual connections; check that the power parameters of the inverter are normal and there is no alarm message; check that the relevant power curves are consistent with the actual weather. Regularly check that the measurement and control devices of the step-up transformer are normal; check that the transformer has no leakage, abnormal sound, heat, abnormal vibration, etc.; record the relevant parameters of the inverter and step-up transformer that are regularly checked for filing.

6.3 High and low voltage switch

Some of the high and low voltage switches are the link between the inverter and the step-up transformer, some are the gateway between the primary system in the station and the power grid, and some are the auxiliary power supply of the primary equipment, which play a decisive role in the normal switching and safety maintenance of the entire power station. Before and after the high and low voltage switches are cast and withdrawn, the relevant industry regulations must be fully followed. It is strictly forbidden to operate without a ticket, conduct a simulation preview before the operation, and implement the system of singing and repeating the ticket. In the process of inspecting the high and low voltage switches, carefully check and make records. Regular maintenance of high and low voltage switches shall be carried out in accordance with relevant regulations.

6.4 High voltage overhead outgoing line

The outlet of high-voltage overhead lines is the lifeline to ensure the power output of large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power plants. It is very important for the high-quality maintenance of the overhead outgoing line. The daily inspection is mainly to check the content that endangers the safe operation of the line. Regular inspection of the line can find and deal with defects in time, which has a great effect on the safe operation of the system.

7. Carry out a variety of effective training work to improve the overall quality of personnel

A few days ago, photovoltaic power stations in many parts of the country have sprung up and been built and put into operation all over the country. Excellent operation and maintenance and management personnel of photovoltaic power plants are relatively scarce. Photovoltaic power generation enterprises should regard the cultivation and delivery of new photovoltaic power generation management technicians as a long-term mechanism to implement. In terms of training content, it must be focused and targeted; in terms of training methods, it must be flexible and diverse; in terms of employment mechanism, it is necessary to select personnel with better technology, more comprehensive skills, and good at coordination and organization to take up important positions; in terms of performance appraisal It is necessary to link the quality of training with wages and bonuses. Can be through the following ways:

7.1 Take the training method of carrying out safety activities

Through real-time activities such as safety day, safety week, safety month, and 100-day safety and no accidents. Carrying out training examinations, technical lecture competitions, and labor competition competitions for personnel can effectively improve personnel safety, technical knowledge level and operation and maintenance skills;

7.2 Improve personnel’s operation and maintenance skills in practical work

In the daily maintenance and spring and autumn construction overhaul work, through everyone’s participation in the maintenance work, the real-time education of the personnel on the maintenance workflow will be strengthened before and after work, and the problems found in the work can be corrected in time, and they can be corrected at the meeting before and after work. Comment on the recent maintenance work, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the work process, so that personnel can continue to summarize in practice, make continuous progress in the summary, and form a dynamic talent growth mechanism;

7.3 Divide personal responsibility field and basic management ledger

Targeted classification and division of power plant equipment, decomposing the various basic safety management tasks of the power plant, allowing employees to participate in it, acting as the master of power plant safety management, continuous learning and communication, so as to improve their technical level and professionalism at the same time Improve the sense of honor and dedication of the staff;

7.4 Take the training method of sending out and inviting in

Organize personnel to observe and learn from other photovoltaic power generation enterprises or other production enterprises with high management level, so that management level improvement and technical exchange become a normal mechanism; invite equipment manufacturers, similar power plants, safety, emergency and other related fields. Training personnel in related fields to expand the knowledge of personnel is of great help to complete the daily basic management of the power station.

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